What is Quantitative Research:
Its Definition, Methods & Examples


Quantitative research is performed for obtaining deeper knowledge and collecting reliable data and figures to assist in answering essential business concerns. Simply put, quantitative research primarily concerns the "why" of any given research. Let’s walk you through the intricacies of quantitative research.

Definition

The systematic analysis of phenomena known as quantitative research involves collecting measurable data and applying statistical, mathematical, or computational methods. To put it simply, it’s the technique of gathering and studying numerical information.

The opposite of qualitative research (which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data), quantitative research is described as the method of capturing and interpreting numerical data. Finding patterns, trends, forecasts, and causal links between the variables under study are all typical applications of quantitative research.

It is also used to deduce study findings of the demographic under consideration. Scientific fields, including the social and natural sciences, frequently use quantitative market research.

Quantitative Research Methods

Quantitative research methods fall into two basic categories: primary research methods and secondary research methods.

Primary Research Methods:

Under primary research, the researcher concentrates on gathering data directly rather than on data obtained from earlier research. Primary quantitative research methods can be divided into four types:

Survey Research

Survey research is the most profound tool for all quantitative research methodologies and studies. Surveys are designed to ask questions to a select group of survey participants (samples) and are available in various forms.

An organization can undertake survey research by asking myriad questions, collecting data from a market of consumers, and analyzing the data collected to generate quantitative results. It is the first step in gathering data for any research project.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys are the two major types of surveys that researchers can use based on the time they take and the type of required data.

Correlational Research

Correlation research is carried out to determine a relationship between the two highly related entities. This quantitative research method is used to assign a monetary value to naturally occurring relationships and necessitates the involvement of two distinct groups to be carried out effectively.

The variables of this research are not under the researcher's control; the researcher is simply attempting to determine if a relationship between two variables occurs; they do not establish causation.

Thus, inferences should not be drawn based solely on a correlational study; just because two variables are in sync does not imply that they are interrelated or that one variable is causing changes in the other. Given below is an example of Correlational Research Questions:

  • What is the connection between choosing remote work and the degree of corona-phobia in the workforce?
Experimental Research

This research method, also known as true experimentation, is based on a theory. As the title implies, experimental research is typically based on one or perhaps more theories. The theory under study in this approach has not yet been proven; it is merely speculation. As a result, an experiment is conducted to confirm or disprove the theory. The theory is established if the experiment outcomes agree with the theory's forecast. If not, the theory is invalid.

An example of an experimental research question is as follows:

  • Is it true that people under the influence of alcohol make more risky decisions than those who are not?
Secondary Quantitative Research Methods
Otherwise known as desk research, secondary quantitative research is a research method that employs previously collected (or "secondary") data. Existing data is processed and compiled to improve overall research efficiency. The five most common secondary quantitative research methods are as follows:

  • Internet Database
  • Government & Private database
  • Database from public libraries
  • Database from educational institutions
  • Database from commercial information sources

Why Quantitative Research?

Despite their superficiality and limited scope, researchers prefer quantitative research methods due to their best attributes, such as the possibility to replicate the study, direct comparisons of results, and the ability to process large sample sizes. Above all, advanced software for evaluating statistical data has been developed, and thus quantitative research enables rapid evaluation of the findings.

Given these benefits, quantitative research is widely regarded as the most effective method for identifying patterns, frequencies, forecasts, and cause-effect relationships between the variables under study.

Author
Abhay

February 19, 2022

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